Frontiers Model

The Frontiers model is a simple model of the carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) cycles in a Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forest.

Hydra Model

The Hydra Model is a carbon and water model for an individual tree. It is written in Borland Delphi (version 3, service pack 2) for IBM PC compatibles.

MBL General Ecosystem Model (GEM)

The Marine Biological Laboratory General Ecosystem Model (MBL-GEM) is a process-based plot-scale model of C-N interactions in terrestrial ecosystems. The original structure of the model is described in detail in Rastetter et al. (1991) and McKane et al., 1997. Le Dizès et al. (2003) describe the latest version, MBL-GEM III, in detail.

  • Rastetter, E. B., M. G. Ryan, G. R. Shaver, J. M. Melillo, K. J. Nadelhoffer, J. E. Hobbie and J. D. Aber. 1991. A general biogeochemical model describing the responses of the C and N cycles in terrestrial ecosystems to changes in CO2, climate and N deposition. Tree Physiology 9:101-126.

    McKane, R., E. Rastetter, G. Shaver, K. Nadelhoffer, A. Giblin, J. Laundre and F. Chapin. 1997. Climatic effects on tundra carbon storage inferred from experimental data and a model. Ecology 78:1170-1187.

    Le Dizès, S., B.L. Kwiatkowski, E.B. Rastetter, A. Hope, J.E. Hobbie, D. Stow, S. Daeschner. 2003. Modeling biogeochemical responses of tundra ecosystems to temporal and spatial variations in climate in the Kuparuk River Basin (Alaska). Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 108(D2), 8165, doi:10.1029/2001JD000960.

MBL Multiple Element Limitation (MEL)

The multiple element limitation (MBL MEL) model is a process based ecosystem model describing the plot scale dynamics of plants and soils.

  • Rastetter, E. B., and G. R. Shaver. 1992. A model of multiple element limitation for acclimating vegetation. Ecology 73:1157-1174

    Rastetter, E. B., G. I. Ågren and G. R. Shaver. 1997a. Responses of N-limited ecosystems to increased CO2: A balanced-nutrition, coupled-element-cycles model. Ecological Applications 7:444-460.

    Rastetter, EB, R.D. Yanai, R.Q. Thomas, M.A. Vadeboncoeur, T.J. Fahey, M.C. Fisk, B.L. Kwiatkowski, and S.P. Hamburg. 2013. Recovery from Disturbance Requires Resynchronization of Ecosystem Nutrient Cycles. Ecological Applications 23:621-642.


The modelshell program is a wrapper for mass balance type models. Modelshell provides a GUI interface, input and output routines, and a simple graphing routine.

Non-Equilibrium, Stable-Isotope Simulator (NESIS)

The non-equilibrium, stable-isotope simulator (NESIS) calculates the dynamics in the isotopic signature of the stocks of an element using the output from any parent model that predicts the flux rates and stocks of that element based on a mass balance approach.

  • Rastetter, E.B., B.L. Kwiatkowski, and R.B. McKane. 2005. A Stable Isotope Simulator that Can Be Coupled to Existing Mass-Balance Models. Ecological Applications 15:1772-1782.

Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM)

The Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM) is a process-based ecosystem model that describes carbon, nitrogen and water dynamics of plants and soils for terrestrial ecosystems of the globe.

  • Raich, J. W., E. B. Rastetter, J. M. Melillo, D. W. Kicklighter, P. A. Steudler, B. J. Peterson, A. L. Grace, B. Moore III and C. J. Vorosmarty. 1991. Potential net primary productivity in South America: Application of a global model. Ecological Applications 1:399-429.

Tropical Forest Regrowth (TFR)

The Tropical Forest Regrowth (TFR) model is derived from the Multiple Element Limitation (MEL) model (Rastetter and Shaver 1992; Rastetter et al. 2013) to investigate the responses of secondary tropical forests.

  • Nagy, RC, E Rastetter, C Neill, and S Porder. 2017. Nutrient limitation in tropical secondary forests following different management practices. Ecological Applications 27:734-755.